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(excluding Herbs, Flowers and most Essential Oils)
Acacia -see Gum Arabic

Agar Wood or Agarci Wood -see Oud

Aloes resin.
Not to be confused with the sweet smelling diseased wood known as Lignum Aloes, or Aloes Wood (which we stock under the name of Agar Wood). The name confusion arises from a mistranslation in the King James Authorised version of the Bible. Most biblical references simply to "Aloes" should be read as meaning "Lignum Aloes".  The Aloes resin is prepared by boiling down the sap of Aloe ferrox -a plant similar to the better publicised Aloe vera. Smoulders to give off a strange green smoke, with a sweet, but "dark" smell.

Aloes Wood -see Oud or Lignum Aloes

Alum is a white crystalline substance created naturally by volcanic action on certain rocks and is mined in Turkey and Morocco amongst other places. It is also traditionally made by processing similar rocks and clays -although obviously it is now also produced by artificial chemical methods. It has many  uses such as a “mordant” (ie a fixative) in dying, and for curing animal skins. It is non-toxic.
It is also one of the most useful chemicals in the incense-makers cupboard. Alum has no smell when smouldered (although it does have a slight lemon-sherbet taste). However, when ground up with herbs and used in incense it has the amazing property of bubbling up around the herb, and carrying the scent of that herb without the "bonfire" effect that you get if you try to burn the herb by itself.
We sell the traditionally mined “Volcanic” alum, not the chemically produced variety
For making incense always use the lump or crystal form of Alum, as the grinding process breaks up the leaves of the herb. Powdered alum does not grind the herb and ends up with a paste. The powdered version is used for growing crystals etc. PLEASE NOTE. By default we will send you the powdered variety. If you require larger lumps, please ask!

Amber -see also Colophony  
Probably one of the most commonly misused names, as it is frequently applied to a wide variety of totally different substances.
The amber used in jewellery is fossilised pine resin -and although it can be added to an incense mixture, it just gives off an unpleasant smoke. Not recommended! Modern fake amber is commercially manufactured by processing Colophony (pine resin), and this is a little bit better.
True amber oil is derived from ambergris. (see below). However virtually all the amber oil available at the moment is synthetic -and varies tremendously in quality
Incense Amber is again colophony and will vary in quality according to the species of pine tree.

Anbra (or ambra)
Various spellings. Another name for Labdanum

This strange grey waxy substance is produced by the Sperm Whale, and has always been very much valued in perfumery. The Grimoires call it the natural "sede of the fishe knowne as the Waale". It is extremely rare and very expensive., which means that it is very often faked. High quality ambergris is sold in the Middle East for medicinal purposes -and interestingly has very little smell. However the wonderfully aromatic yellow blocks sometimes offered as “ambergris” are in fact simply a base wax with a little of the artificial oil added to give them their aroma!

African Ammoniacum (Ferula communis)
Also known as White Fesook or Ushak. See also Sumbul. (Also sometimes called Nard, though strictly this term should be applied to Spikenard.)
This gum does not smell of ammonia! The name comes from the temple of Jupiter-Ammon in Libya, where it originally grew. The plant is a species of Giant Fennel. The form used in incense is African Ammoniacum, and differs slightly from Medicinal Ammoniacum which is Dorema ammoniacum
It is one of the gums most mentioned in the ancient grimoires, and is therefore of great interest to magickians.
If burnt by itself it has a slightly rubbery smell, and is best mixed with other herbs and spices.

Angelica (Angelica archangelica.)
The root is usually used,

Edward IV had his linen scented with a mixture of aniseed and orris root

Aquilla Wood -see Oud or Lignum Aloes

Asafoetida (also known as Asant)
Known in Turkey as Shaytan Tersi - Devil's Dung. A pretty accurate name for this revoltingly smelly gum -but also describes its usage in dark ceremonies. Interestingly although Galbanum is usually identified one of the "spices" of the Sacred Incense of Moses, (the word in Hebrew is Chelbenah), the ancient Kabbalistic texts describe this "spice" as being of a "Vile and Evil odour" -which fits Asafoetida more than Galbanum. And as the plants that produce the two gums are virtually identical in all other manners, our research is now indicating that it is indeed Asafoetida that should be held as the eleventh "spice", which corresponds to Daath, the sepiroth of sin and evil.
Warning: the asafoetida sold in supermarkets has usually been “diluted” with corn flower. The pure gum that we sell is much, much stronger!

Usually the "keys" are used.  

Asilbent  or asilbend -see Benzoin or Syrian Jawee

Balm of Gilead.
The nature of true Balm of Gilead is uncertain, but it is usually understood to be Commiphora opobalsamum. (see myrrh) Interestingly it is almost certainly not C.gileadensis! The “Balm of Gilead” sold by most herbalists is not actually from a Commiphora species but is the fragrant dried buds of various species of Poplar tree, mainly Populus balsamifera. Abies balsamea (see Canada Balsam) is also sometimes referred to as the “Balm of Gilead Fir”

Bdellium -also see Myrrh,  Opopanax
This is an aromatic form of myrrh said variously to come from  Commiphora wightii, C.mukul, C.africana  or C.erythraea. The term should at present be understood to simply mean high quality, scented myrrh.

Benzoin .
This gum/resin comes from the Styrax tree, which is frequently confused with Storax. See that entry for an explanation of the differences.
Also known as Gum Benjamin. This has nothing to do with the Biblical character as the name derives from a curious linguistic twist of fate.
When the early Arabic traders first reached Java they found the tree Styrax benzoin growing there and called its resin "Luban Jawi", which means the "Frankincense of Java". When the Europeans arrived, "Luban Jawi" was translated as "La Benjawi", which soon became "La Benjamin". The Venetian traders found the j difficult to pronounce, changed it to z, and we end up with "La Benzoin" Most Benzoin is now grown in Sumatra
In India "Luban Jawee" became Loban. In Arabic countries still usually known as Jawee. However, please note not all Jawee is Benzoin.
True benzoin has a slightly vanilla smell.  Frequently referred to by Nostradamus, and also named as an essential ingredient in most of the Grimoires.

Bisabol Myrrh  -see Opopanax

Also spelled bakhur, bukhoor, etc.
This is an Arabic word simply meaning "incense". In practice it is usually applied to a blend, ie "a bakhur" and these blends are as many and varied as the people making them. In some areas each family has preserved their own recipe, -although there are certain regional "types".
There is also the Turkish word "buhur" (derived from the Arabic Bkhur ).This is also a general word for incense

Black Storax -see Storax

Calmus  (Acorus calamus.)

Camphor Whenever possible use the wood. The crystalline extract found in moth balls is too overwhelming!

Canada Balsam also known as Fir Gum or sometimes Balm of Gilead
This is the resin of Abies balsamea (a species of fir tree). It is not a true balsam as it sets into a solid clear resin

Well known as a culinary spice but also used in some incense mixtures

Very similar to cinnamon, but not so easily obtained. Much more subtle and far more suited for use in incense. Available in bark quills or powder.  

Cedar Wood
Familiar aromatic wood, with various species differing according to location, ie English Cedar, American Cedar, Cedar of Lebanon. Each type gives a very different aroma.

Chadra Ushak
A Turkish incense based on Ammoniacum but containing further seeds and spices

Incense resins are vaporised on red hot charcoal. Although it is certainly possible to use barbeque lumpwood charcoal, the most practical method is to set light to a specially prepared charcoal disc, These usually last for about one and a half hours. See also our page on “How to burn Incense”

A very familiar culinary spice. But that is not say that it doesn't have magickal properties! Tends to be overpowering when used as an incense.

Citronella  (Cymbopogon nardus)
A grass from South East Asia. Frequently referred to as a type of Spikenard. Can be called Sumbel Root Also used in cooking.

Another familiar culinary spice which can be used in incenses

This is another word for Incense Amber or Pine Resin (but does not actually tell you which of the many types of Pine Tree the resin comes from!)
The best Colophony comes from the Moroccan Atlas pine. Sometimes (wrongly) referred to as Propolis. See also Rosin

Copal  Comes in three main grades,
Golden Copal
 White Copal
 Night (Black) copal
This resin originally comes from South America -and is therefore not mentioned in mediaeval manuscripts as it was not known in the West before the 16th century  Burnt by the Mayans, Aztecs and Incas as a gift to the Sun, it has often been called the "American Frankincense" Nowadays it is widely grown elsewhere (especially the "Golden" Copal) -but the best grade is the generally held to be the sensual Dark Copal (Night Copal) which comes from Mexico. Also found fossilised, (ie like Amber).Copals are sometimes sold as Dammar

Copaiba Balsam -Jesuits Balsam, Liquid Copal.
A balsam from Copaifera officinalis. Used medicinally or as a perfume but not usually as an incense.

Coral  Powdered Red Coral (known as "Sea Stone") has sometimes been used in incense.

Corrigiola   Saghine, or Sarghand, also sometimes Sumbul
A small dried root (Corrigiola telephiifolia) from Morocco for use in incense.

Costus Root
There are two types of Costus root.
1) Costus species, with C.arabicus being the most commonly used in incense. The genus is related to the Ginger family, and the plants are widely grown for their ornamental flowers.
2) Saussurea lappa. This comes from Kashmir, and is the root referred to by the ancient  incense and medical recipes. The smell  is similar to a mixture between musk and violets.

Cuttlefish Bone
as beloved by Granny's Budgie! Some incense mixtures add powdered Cuttlefish "bone",and we have been told by a learned Moroccan magickian that a small amount added to incense serves to combat the evil eye

a wood .

The dried root of Atractylis gummifera, the Gum Thistle, commonly used in Arabic Magick to influence the Dark Forces. Extremely poisonous

This is the Malay word for Resin and  should therefore only be applied to certain Indian and Indonesian gums and resins. The most common type of true Dammar is the gum from the conifer Shorea Wiesnerii.
The term is sometimes used to describe some of the Copals

Devil's Finger Nails  (Also see separate page on Onycha for further information
These are the "opercula" of a whelk-like shell fish. The "operculum" (plural opercula) is the "lid" that all these types of molluscs secrete over their shell opening in order to seal themselves in during dry periods. Widely used in Middle Eastern Bkhur, but if burnt by themselves smell revolting!
Not to be confused with "Devil's Toe Nails" which are fossil shells from the Jurassic period, or “Devils Claw” which is a medicinal root.

Dragant  -see Gum Tragacanth

Dragon's Blood
A blood red resin from the Dragon's Blood Palm. There are several trees bearing that name growing in various localities (ie the Canaries) but the true incense variety  is found in Sumatra. Referred to in many apothecaries’ texts -and traditionally used in medicines to cure dysentery and syphilis!
Comes in two forms, a purified powder we call "Apothecaries Dragons Blood", and a "lump" form, "Incense Dragons Blood"  which gives an aroma slightly similar to Frankincense. When this form is dissolved in surgical spirits there is a considerable amount of plant residue left. As the apothecaries grade has very little smell this leads to the conclusion that much of the aroma may be derived from this plant residue. The "Incense grade" is cheaper -but for incense usage is probably more effective.
"Apothecaries Grade"  dissolves completely in pure alcohol to give a dark red, blood like solution which can also be used as a stain or an ink.
Herb Robert (from the Geranium family) is also sometimes known as “Dragon’s Blood”

Eagle Wood -see Lignum Aloes

A bitter/sweet smelling gum from the Philippines

Euphorbium Also known as Wolfs Milk. This is a poisonous milky white sap found in the spurge family of plants. Euphorbia resinifera produces a hardened resin.

Ferula  These are various types of giant fennels
See Ammoniacum, Fesook, Galbanum,  Sumbel, Ushak etc

Fesook  (often misspelled as Feshook) see also Sumbul
-pungent gums derived from Ferula species.
Two varieties are available
1) Brown -a form of ammoniacum, but with a slightly more bitter smell. Very similar to Galbanum for which it can be substituted.
2) White -see Ammoniacum

Fir Gum -see Canada Balsam

Flax seeds are known as linseed

This famous resin is produced by an insignificant scrubby little bush (Boswellia species) which in historical times only grew at the far southern end of the Arabian peninsula and North-East Africa .
The Arabic word for frankincense is "Al Luban", meaning "The Milky One" This describes the milky white texture of the oxidised resin -although many of the best resins are golden in colour. From this we get the European name Olibanum. However, to confuse matters "Luban" tends nowadays to be used for a wide variety of incenses, some of which are very definitely not frankincense! Most modern frankincense comes from Somalia, although it is often re-packaged to make it appear to originate from the Arabian peninsula
A mixture of dried frankincense leaves and bark may sometimes be used as a base for an incense mix.

There are three main species of Boswellia which produce true Frankincense and each type of resin is available in various grades. The grades depend on the time of harvesting -and the resin is hand sorted for quality.
B. sacra (aka B.carteri or B.thurifera)
This is the Arabian Frankincense, and the best quality comes from the Oman and the Yemen. The Highest grades are known as “Silver” and “Hojary”. Although the Omanis themselves generally consider Silver to be a better grade than Hojary, most Western connoisseurs think that it should be the other way round. I suspect that this is probably due to climactic conditions with the Hojary smelling best in the relatively cold, damp climate of the UK, whereas Silver may well be more suited to the hot dry conditions of Arabia
Some literature identifies B.sacra as growing in Oman and Yemen, and B.carterii as growing in Somalia.. The latest scientific opinion is that these are both the same species and should correctly be called B.sacra
B. frereana
As far as we can tell this only grows in Northern Somalia where the locals call it "Maydi", the king of all frankincense. We call it "Coptic Frankincense" as this is exactly the type and grade used by the Coptic Church of Egypt.  This is our personal choice for indoor use as it gives an intense and pure aroma. It is virtually unobtainable outside Arabic counties as 80% of production is sold to Saudi Arabia where it is traditionally brought home by Muslim pilgrims. The remaining 20% is sold to all the other Arab counties put together. Be careful what you buy as Omani B.sacra is sometimes offered for sale as the far more expensive B.frereana although the smell is very different.
B. serrata
This is the Indian frankincense.

Red ginger. Also known as Galingale

Galbanum (Ferula galbaniflua)
A fennel gum related to Fesook.  It is also available as an oil, and can sometimes be obtained as a sticky sap.

Greek Myrrh -probably Syrian Jawee

An Indian form of Myrrh derived from Commiphora mukul. In sacred rites, it was steeped in wine to increase its fragrance.

Gum Arabic
Usually seen as a processed powder Gum Arabic has no taste or scent -which makes it an ideal medium for binding other ingredients without changing their attributes. In its natural form it comes in large amber-coloured lumps. Produced by acacia bushes

Gum Benjamin -see Benzoin

Gum Juniper-see Sandarac

Gum Tragacanth (Gum Dragant)
This is a neutral smelling gum that like Gum Arabic can be used to bind other ingredients. Can be obtained either as a powder or as natural flakes, the latter coming in two grades, ie the superior pure white or a basic unprocessed red. These latter flakes look like claws or rough finger nails, and may well be “The Arabian Gum known as the Claw” mentioned in early Coptic magickal texts. It is possible that this may be "Onycha"

Habbakhadi -see Opopanax

Incense Amber -see Colophony

Jawee See also Benzoin
All the Arabic/English dictionaries translate Jawee as meaning Benzoin.
However, the Jawee found in North African Arabic countries (especially Morocco) is very different from the usual Sumatran type of Benzoin as it is a much harder rock like substance. In fact, some local traders may even claim that it is a stone

There are three varieties of Jawee, ie  White, Black or Red varieties, each with different magickal uses.  The Arabic tradition is that White Jawee is used to work with the White Djnn (Air), Black Jawee with the Black Djnn (Earth and Water) and Red Jawee with the Fire Djnn.
Red Jawee can be found as a pure resin, but mostly it is a traditional preparation based on the White. It is also important to note that “Black” does not have the same significance as in Western magic, and in the Middle East the phrase “Black Magick for Good Luck” is often used. From a historical viewpoint this is close to the alchemic view of colour
Note that Syrian Jawee, is a not technically a jawee as it is not benzoin (Neither does it come from Syria!)

The wood and leaves are used in many incenses, as are the berries. (Sandarac is sometimes called Gum Juniper)

Kai kou or kaiko
Mollusc opercula, -see Onycha

A blended incense from Ancient Egypt (follow link for more details)

Labdanum (also Ladanum)
In its solid form this is also sometimes known as ambre.(Various spellings, often confused with amber)
It is also often supplied as a thick oil, which is like a tar at room temperature but which becomes a free flowing oil when warmed. Comes from the Rock Rose of Crete, (Cistus ladaniferus) and has a beautiful, sensual fragrance.  Herodotus tells the story of how it is collected on the beards of goats!

Lignum Aloes -see oud.
Not to be confused with Aloes Resin!

Flax seeds

Liquidambar -see Storax

This name applies to an Indian form of benzoin with a particularly intensive aroma. But to confuse matters still further, not all forms of Indian Loban are benzoin types! Similar to the confusion with the Jawee resins

Long Pepper
A very unusual spice. Slightly peppery, slightly sweet. Frequently mentioned in the Grimoires and in mediaeval cooking, but nowadays hardly ever seen outside of the Middle East

Luban -see Frankincense

Mastic of Chios.
A gentle and light resin from a tree related to the Pistachio nut! Produced on the Greek Island of Chios, and is also used in the production of Ouzo. Frequently mentioned in the Grimoires was also the original chewing gum -from which we get the word "mastication".  

Mandrake.  For more information see separate Mandrakes Page

Mecca Balsam
Usually understood to be Commiphora opobalsamum. See Myrrh

True musk is taken from the scent glands of the Musk Deer and is very expensive. Synthetic musk is widely available

The word “myrrh” comes from the Arabic word “mirrah”, meaning bitter. Bitter Myrrh is produced by trees and bushes of the Commiphora genus and although there are approximately 200 different species of Commiphora all of whom can produce a myrrh type resin, only the following are generally held to be suitable for incense.

Of these the most significant are Commiphora molmol which produces the gum usually recognised as true Myrrh, and C.erythraea which produces the myrrh like gum called opopanax. The gum-resin from C.mukal is known as Guggal and is from India. The names Mecca Balsam and Balm of Gilead usually refer to C.opobalsamum. To confuse matters this is technically neither a balsam nor a balm!

Other incense species are C.abyssinica, C.africana, C.africanum, C.myrrha, C.opobalsam, C.roxburghii, C.stocksiana C.wightii

Myrrhs vary tremendously in quality. For instance when used as incense high quality C.molomol smells like spicy raisins, whereas poor quality gum from the same species of bush smells like burning rubber. Liquid myrrh or myrrh oil is known as Stacte. High quality aromatic myrrh is known as Bdellium.

To confuse matters, other gums and resins that are not from Commiphora species are also sometimes sold as myrrh. One typical example is the resin known as Syrian Jawee, which is also sometimes known as Sweet Myrrh or Greek Myrrh. However, opopanax is also known as Sweet Myrrh. And Syrian Jawee is not a jawee!

Whilst the "Myrrh" of the New Testament Nativity story (Mat.2:11) or in the recipe for the Holy Anointing Oil (Ex.30:23) could be either, that of the rest of the Old Testament is more specific. The passage "I have perfumed my bed with myrrh and aloes" (Prov.7:17) , and the seven references to Myrrh in the short erotic text called "The Song of Solomon" can only refer to the seductive allure of Bdellium or "Sweet Myrrh".

Nard -see Citronella, Spikenard or Fesook

Use both the bark and the acorns.

Olibanum -see Frankincense.
The word is derived from the Arabic words "al Luban").

Probably mollusc opercula -see separate page for more information

Opopanax -also known as “Bisabol Myrrh”, “Sweet Myrrh” (not to be confused with Syrian Jawee), bdellium, or habbakhadi Very frequently misspelled as oppoponax etc.
The ancient form of opopanax came from a root (Opopanax chironicum) which now seems to be totally unavailable. The opopanax available nowadays is invariably from Commiphora erythraea and is similar to myrrh

Orris (or Iris). The root is usually used in incense and perfumery

Oud also known as Lignum Aloes,  aloes wood, agar wood agarci wood, eagle wood, aud, ud etc.
This is sweet perfumed wood from the Aquilla tree, which is native to India and surrounding areas. One of the most ancient and traditional incense woods, celebrated in biblical texts (ie the Song of Solomon) simply as "Aloes". The unique aroma is due to a fungal infection of the heartwood, which causes the tree to secrete an aromatic protective resin. The Japanese have identified six grades of this wood, as it changes with age and degree of infection. The top grade (old wood, where practically everything has decayed except the infected part) is very rare, and very, very expensive. Moreover, to confuse matters, the lower grades smell totally different to the top ones. Because of its value oud is frequently faked by adding synthetic oils to a common wood -then sealing them in with a neutral gum or resin.
We stock three types. A basic Indian Oud, a high grade Malaysian Oud (actually from Cambodia!) and Muattar Khus which is oud enhanced with pure oud oil. If you are looking for the pure scent of Oud, then we would recommend the Malaysian, or the Muattar. If on the other hand you need the wood as a base for an incense mixture, then the cheaper Indian variety would be sufficient.
Not to be confused with Aloes Resin!

Palo Santo
The Sacred Aromatic Wood of Peru. (related to Frankincense. Grows in the dry forest region just south of the Equator. Used by the Incas and other pre-colonial cultures.

Peru Balsam  (Myroxylon pereirae)
A fragrant thick brown liquid from trees originally found in El Salvador, now also grown in Sri Lanka

Pine Resin -see Colophony

Propolis True propolis is a mixture of tree resins collected by bees and used to seal gaps in their hives etc.. However, the term is also sometimes applied to Moroccan Pine resin (see Colophony)

Used as a term on its own this usually means pine resin, ie Colophony

Rosin -see Colophony
An early (14th century) spelling of RESIN
As a modern term, it describes the commercially manufactured product made from various resins (ie turpentine) and used by violinists (and other string players) to give their bows friction on the strings of their instrument. Otherwise the bow would just slide off the string, the string would not vibrate, the instrument would not resonate -and you'd have a silent violin!
Sometimes also used in polishes etc.

Rue also known as Ruta
The seeds of the wild rue are frequently used in incenses as they are somewhat similar to musk,  but if overused can give a “cooking” type smell. The dried leaves and flowers are also used.

One of the best-known aromatic woods. Two types, Red and White, of which  the white is far superior. The highest quality white sandalwood grows in India, but the Indian government place very stringent controls on export as it has become endangered due to over-exploitation. Chinese white sandalwood (often also called yellow sandalwood) is sometimes available.
Sandalwood oil is very easy to obtain, but much of the product on the market is synthetic. Be careful of cheap powdered “sandalwood” which can sometimes be sawdust with some oil added. The easiest way to spot this fake is to look for signs of “sweating” in warm temperatures (ie droplets of oil on the wrapper). In addition, be careful of even the “real thing” as some lumps of genuine wood may have been previously boiled to extract the oil.
Red Sandalwood (grown in India and Australia) is widely available and is often used in cooking.

Sandarac (or Sandaros) also known as Gum Juniper
A clear yellow resin with a very "clean" aroma.

Sometimes known simply as Nard. Also Sumbul Root. One of the precious fragrances mentioned in the Bible, and also frequently used in ancient Egyptian perfume and incense mixtures. Usually available as an oil, it is derived from the roots of Nardostachys jatamansi. The botanical name has its roots in the Hindu word Jatamansi which means "lock of hair." Corresponds to Venus. Do not confuse with Spike Oil which is derived from lavender
There is also an American Spikenard Aralia racemosa
To confuse matters Citronella is also sometimes called Spikenard

Stacte -liquid Myrrh

Storax -see also Liquidambar
1). A liquid resinoid From Liquidambar spp trees which intensifies the aroma of all other resins and gums present.  Black Storax is the traditional “dry” preparation and is a fine charcoal impregnated with storax Corresponds to the Sun and to Fire.
2) Wood from the tree Styrax officinale. This tree does not produce a useful resin

A lot of confusion here. Technically Styrax is Benzoin, but the word is often used as a synonym for Storax.

The yellow chemical known as brimstone

Sumbul Root also known as Musk Root
There are several plants known by the Arabic name of Sumbul, or Sunbul. The main types used in incense are
1) The roots of several different Ferula species. (such as Ferula sumbul). F.suaveolens is the type most widely available, but the roots of Galbanum (F. galbaniflua) are considered the most powerful, followed by African Ammoniacum (F. communis). However, in practise it is virtually impossible to tell the differences!
2) Citronella
3) Spikenard
4) Corrigiola
Dorema ammoniacum is sometimes known as False Sumbul

Sweet Cicely
Although this name usually refers to a Umbelliferous plant (Myrrhis odorata) it is also sometimes used for some Myrrh type resins (ie Commiphora spp)

Sweet Myrrh -see Opopanax or Syrian Jawee

Syrian Jawee -also known as “Sweet Myrrh” or possibly “Greek myrrh”
This sweet, honey-smelling resin is neither a jawee (ie Benzoin type) nor is it a myrrh (Commiphora type). And it doesn’t come from Syria (or Greece).

Thus (Thuris) or Gum Thus.See Frankincense
The ancient Latin word for Frankincense is "thus", often shortened to "tus" . The word derives from the Greek word "thyos" meaning a sacrifice (from which we also get the name of the plant “thyme“).  “Thuris” is a Latin adjective meaning “of frankincense“, and is sometimes misused to mean the resin itself. “Thuris” is also the root of the word "thurible", which technically means a container in which to burn frankincense -although we nowadays tend to use the term to describe a censor with chains. “Thus” or “tus” are also used as verbs, so "to tus" or "to thus" means to burn incense.
Although strictly speaking the words "thus","thuris" or "tus" only relate to frankincense, they are often used to mean incense in general.
The modern Turkish word for an incense mix is "tutsu", also sometimes spelled "tussu". This also derives from "tus", presumably via the late Roman (Byzantine) civilisation of Constantinople.

A biblical term used mainly by archaeologists to describe resins found in Egyptian New Kingdom and Minoan excavations. Probably Mastic of Chios

Tolu Balsam (Myroxylon toluifera balsamum)
A thick brown balsam from Columbia and other equatorial regions of South America. After a time may solidify

Ushak -see Ammoniacum

Wolfs Milk -see Euphorbia